Fast facts: Diabetes, its dangers and complications
What is diabetesIt occurs in two ways; either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. Insulin is the hormone in our body that regulates blood sugar. In essence, the insulin allows glucose from the food we eat to pass from the bloodstream into the cells in the body to produce energy.
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetesPreviously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset. Patients cannot produce insulin and have to depend on a daily injection of the hormone. Its cause is not known and it largely affects children and young adults. There is no known way to prevent type 1 diabetes which is characterised by excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes, and fatigue.
Type 2 diabetesFormerly called non-insulin-dependent, or adult-onset and occurs when your body can not effectively use the insulin it produces. It is associated with age, overweight, hypertension, abnormal cholesterol levels, an inactive lifestyle, stroke and genetic factors. It accounts for up to 95 per cent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Symptoms may be similar to those of type 1 diabetes but are often less marked. Women who have had four or more pregnancies are at increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life.
Gestational diabetesIt is a form of hyperglycaemia (too much glucose in the blood) in which blood glucose values are above normal but below those diagnostic of diabetes. Scientists say it is a form of glucose intolerance diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery. They have up to 50 per cent chance of developing diabetes in the next 5 to 10 years.
Who is most affected?Those in low- and middle-income countries, who are middle-aged (45-64) and not elderly (65+).
Morbidity and ComplicationsIt can lead to heart disease and strokes, high blood pressure, blindness, and damage to the kidneys. It also causes infections and gum disease. The overall risk of dying among people with diabetes is at least double that for non-sufferers.
TreatmentThere is no cure for diabetes and treatment involves lowering blood glucose and other known risk factors.
How to manage diabetesSome of the options but not limited to those listed include:
- Keeping blood glucose level under control to prevent urological and other diabetes-related problems
- Balancing your meals with the right amounts of starches, fruits and vegetables, fats and proteins
- Taking meals in small portions spread across many meals in a day
- Avoiding excess sugar, especially in carbonated drinks such as soda
- Avoiding stress
Treatment of diabetes in men involves options to treat erectile dysfunction including injections with hormones prescribed by health experts.Urologists and endocrinologist also prescribe treatment for low testosterone. Testosterone is the male sex hormone key in regulating fertility in men.
Facts and figuresIn 2017:
- Approximately 425 million adults (20-79 years) were living with diabetes; by 2045 this will rise to 629 million.
- More than 1,106,500 children were living with type 1 diabetes
- 79 per cent of adults with diabetes were living in low- and middle-income countries
- The greatest number of people with diabetes were between 40 and 59 years of age
- Diabetes caused 4 million deaths
- 352 million people were at risk of developing type 2 diabetes
Five common myths on diabetes
Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Fact: There is no one food or nutrient that causes diabetes.
If you are overweight or obese, you will eventually develop type 2 diabetes. Fact: Being overweight is a very important risk factor and the only modifiable one. The others like genetics, one has no control over them.
People with diabetes can't eat sweets or chocolate. Fact: Sweet foods, if eaten in small portions, can be eaten by people with diabetes. Everyone should endeavour to avoid empty calories (those without real food value).
If you have diabetes, you can’t eat any bread, potatoes. Fact: Starchy foods and fruit can be included in a meal plan for people with diabetes. It is the quantities that matter.
I'm skinny, so I can't get diabetes. Fact: In as much as people who are overweight stand a greater risk, 20 per cent of people who get it are slim.Sources: World Health Organization, British National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, International Diabetes Foundation
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