From shameful deaths to assassinations, it’s not easy being a president in the land of pharaohs. Let's take a short historical trip.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
His reign of over 12 years ended in September 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy in Egypt.
In 1954, there was an assassination attempt on him. This lead to the cracking down of the Muslim Brotherhood. Nasser himself put former president Mohamed Naguib under house arrest. He was formally elected president in June 1956.
His health was affected by his chain-smoking and long working hours. At the time of his death in 1970, Nasser had been diagnosed with diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, and high blood pressure but, at least he died of natural causes.
Nasser, the great Pan-Arabist hosted African liberation movements in Egypt including Keny'as Kanu and even facilitated Raila Odinga's travel to East Germany for studies through his connection with Jaramogi Oginga Odinga.
He united Libya and Egypt creating the short-lived United Arab Republic.
Anwar Sadat, took over power in October 1970 and his reign lasted for over 10 years. Sadat was assassinated in Cairo on October 6, 1981 during the annual victory parade commemorating the 1973 Yom Kippur War against Israel. He was shot dead by Egyptian soldiers taking part in a military parade.
Sadat was accused of signing a peace treaty with Israel without obtaining concessions for the Palestinians. He was replaced by his Vice-President, Hosni Mubarak.
On his death, a radical Palestinian faction celebrated declaring that it was shaking "the hand that had pulled the trigger".
Hosni Mubarak came into power in 1981 after the assassination of his predecessor Anwar Sadat. His reign lasted for almost 30 years. He was the fourth president of Egypt and longest-serving ruler only after Muhammad Ali Pasha, whose reign had lasted for 43 years.
Mubarak was famous for his military career He rose up the ranks of the Egyptian military in a relatively short time. He was forced to step down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 and transfer authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
In 2011, Mubarak was slapped with corruption and abuse of power charges by an Egyptian court and sentenced to life imprisonment. He suffered a series of health crises and in January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial where he was given prison sentences.
Mubarak was detained in a military hospital by a Cairo court and would wheeled into the court on a bed. He was later acquitted in March 2017 by Egypt's top appeals court. He was released in March 2017.
Morsi from the Muslim Brotherhood was declared winner of the Egypt's presidential election in June 2012 taking over from Hosni Mubarak. During his reign, which lasted for only a year, Morsi was accused of mounting an Islamist coup and mishandling the economy. He was later ousted in a military coup in July 2013.
Morsi was then arrested and has since been in police custody until his death in court on Monday. He was facing charges of espionage related to suspected contacts with the Palestinian militant Islamist group Hamas.
While appearing in a Cairo court on Monday apparently, the former president fainted during a break in the proceedings, he was later pronounced dead.
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