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A Russian opposition activist holds a placard reading 'Respect our Constitution' during the one-persons protests in central Moscow. [AFP]
Russian opposition activists held one-person protests in Moscow Saturday to demand free elections, as the wave of the Russian capital's larger demonstrations took a breather this weekend.

In a move to circumvent restrictions by the authorities, activists took turns to hold up protest signs as such demonstrations do not technically need approval.

The protests, held at several locations in central Moscow, were a far cry from the wave of rallies in which tens of thousands took to the streets after opposition figures were banned from local elections a month ago.

The previous rallies, which have taken place every Saturday since the ruling, were the biggest since mass protests broke out in 2011 against President Vladimir Putin's return to the Kremlin after a term as prime minister.

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Police have come down hard on the demonstrations, which have tapped into wider anger over declining living standards and a stalling economy.

Some 3,000 people have been arrested for taking part and prominent members of the opposition, including top Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny, remain behind bars.

But on Saturday, AFP reporters saw only several protesters on the streets. Opposition politicians and event organisers were also at the protest.

Maria Ryabikova, a 45-year-old activist, held a sign in support of the jailed protesters at a statue in central Moscow.

'Wrongful arrests'

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Excluded opposition candidate Elena Roussakova vowed to continue to demonstrate against the "wrongful arrests".

OVD-Info, an NGO that monitors detentions at demonstrations, said 12 people were arrested in a similar protest in St Petersburg.

In Moscow, local media said there had been no violence or mass arrests.

Prosecutors have launched criminal cases against about a dozen protesters for "mass unrest" following the earlier protests, with potential prison sentences of up to eight years.

They stand accused of offences including throwing plastic water bottles at police officers.

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"Things were hard before but now authorities aren't even trying to hide what they are doing," Ryabikova told AFP, saying she feared Soviet-style repressions.

She said the arrested protesters are being tried without due process. "The courts are just a formality," she added.

Though a heavy police presence was seen in central Moscow earlier in the day, police steered clear of the activists.

At previous events police have used batons and grabbed people from the streets indiscriminately.

Earlier on Saturday around 4,000 people took part in an approved Communist Party rally for free elections, according to independent monitors.

The Communists are tolerated by the Kremlin and veteran leader Gennady Zyuganov has said the party will not support the liberal opposition's protest.

'Blatantly unfair' polls

The Moscow city hall elections set for September 8 were, until last month, a relatively minor event on Russia's political calendar.

But the issue blew up after election authorities refused to register various opposition candidates over alleged violations including faking the signatures needed to qualify.

Local polls are a rare opportunity for dissenting voices to participate in political life as anti-Kremlin parties have been squeezed out of parliament over Putin's two decades in power.

The Kremlin commented on the month-long protests for the first time this week, seeking to play down their significance.

"We do not agree with those who call what is happening a political crisis," said Putin's spokesman Dmitry Peskov, who defended an "absolutely justified" police response.

Video of a policeman punching a woman in the stomach as she was being detained after a sanctioned protest last week went viral. The interior ministry said it was opening an investigation.

Russian political scientist Ekaterina Shulmann said the cases against participants were "making people angry -- they are broadly perceived as unjust and disproportionately cruel".

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