Other forms of mwakenya are dubbing and tattoos.
For tattoos, a candidate Â¨C mainly female Â¨C writes information on thighs where she can easily adjust to read and copy. The offending material can be deleted quickly when the invigilator becomes suspicious.
There is also a Â¡Â®missile catchÂ¡Â¯ that represents answers written on a piece of paper, squeezed and thrown to a colleague during the examination.
Some cheating methods involve body aids. While announcing last yearÂ¡Â¯s KCPE, Ongeri produced a slipper that was used to write answers. Other body aids that are used to smuggle materials into examination venues include under-pants and handkerchiefs.
Often, students use coded sign language to communicate during examinations particularly in multiple-choice examinations. Another trick allowed by teachers is the Â¡Â®table top guideÂ¡Â¯ where anticipated answers are written on desks before an examination starts. Mostly, formulas, diagrams and maps are written in short form with complicity of teachers and compromised invigilators.
Ingenuity of examination fraud has also spread to use of tokens. These are short notes on the mathematical set, razor blades, rulers, handkerchiefs and other items for referencing during examinations.
A new form of cheating called Â¡Â®comsÂ¡Â¯ involves use of calculators that facilitate multiple entries. Quite often, such special calculators are put in casings of ordinary calculators and might look ordinary and escape invigilators.
Direct access is an act whereby an examiner helps candidates during examinations. There is also the Â¡Â®mercenary service,Â¡Â¯ which involves another person writing the examination.
In last yearÂ¡Â¯s KCSE, some university students were arrested sitting examinations for private candidates.
The Â¡Â®mercenary serviceÂ¡Â¯ is related to Â¡Â®rank zeroxingÂ¡Â¯ which happens when a candidate collects and copies a colleagueÂ¡Â¯s answers word for word.
In universities where examination procedures are not very strict, academic corruption known as Â¡Â®contractÂ¡Â¯ is used.